5# Management Concepts : Dharma – The Absolute Duty

Dharma is the term with multiple meanings in the Hindu,Buddhist,Sikh and Jain philosophy. It is a central concept of the way of living.

Dharma translates into the duty, law, righteousness, rights, conducts, order, model or virtues. Dharma in a simple way can be described as personal righteous duty.

For example, Earning for family is a Dharma of family head. Working in the interest of the employer is the Dharma of an employee.

In more details, Dharma is moral responsibility of the person in the context of the society he/she is living in. For an example, An employee sees his employer earning out the profit by anti-social or anti-national ways. It is employee’s Dharma to educate or stop the company’s decision makers about their acts affecting their social and national responsibilities. another one ,

The nation’s Dharma is to protect their citizens and prosper but not in the cost of others’ sovereignty, environment and other resources.

So Dharma’s definition vary for person to person and it is complex however the one, who is conscious about the world,nation,society,family,environment and shared resources, shouldn’t have problem to distinguish the absolute Dharma from relative Dharma.There will be always relative Dharmas in your way while you will be thinking of the absolute Dharma.

When the person who put his/her self-interest before the general interest and affecting overall population is called relative Dharma, Absolute Dharma bent for self-interest is called relative Dharma. For example, A thief steals to feed his/her family. It is his/her Dharma to feed his/her family but not by the cost of anybody’s resources via wrong ways. The absolute Dharma is to feed one’s family but it shouldn’t be by wrong ways.

How to check your Dharma?

Think of Universe First then World then Nation then State then Community then Family then lastly Yourself. It may give you more clear direction to choose your absolute Dharma.

I hope you all will pick your absolute Dharma for yours and whole universe’s betterment.

If you like this article please feel free to give me feedback for my self-improvement.

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4# Management Tactics: Indian Street Shop Businesses

In almost every business, the regular customers and their loyalty is a major motivational factor in longer terms. In India during 1990s, I have noticed some of the small amateur street vendors followed some management tactics unknowingly to run their businesses successfully which are modern management theories.

Particularly Indian small towns today and 20 years back, the local street shop businessmen always made me wonder for their ” earning enough ” street shop businesses.They were doing good 10-20 years back in cut-throat competition.

Now I could analyse the few common tactics and business policies they were using to keep their customer loyal and happy.

  1. Attitude of  “Customer is God “: I have seen motto or attitude in small shops ” Grahak Bhagvan Hain/Chhe ” literally means “Customer is God” which resembles current day sales management theory of “Customer is Always Right”. This attitude always lead to best customer service and providing what customer wants not what you want to sell. In the shops all customers felt special and satisfied one-on-one customer service. The kids were given a seat and sometimes free chocolates while mother was shopping so kids wont get irritated and mother can take a bit longer time to shop.
  2. Close and longer term relationship with customers : The grocery or vegetables were used to be home delivered by the vendors if you couldn’t go to the shop during monsoon season or any other reason.As a regular customer the vendors also remembered you and in case you didn’t have money to pay him starightaway the vendors still let you go with the stuff you wanted with the condition of pay them back in month or two time.This approach is similar to the today’s supermarkets who runs customer credit cards and loyalti programs if regular customer won’t be able to pay on the spot in some cases.
  3. Thin profit margin with high turn over : This is one of the main businesss tactics common in southeast Asia and Indian subcontinents. Due to lower profit margin and wholesale buying overall price were low and everybody could afford it. It was noticed that who were well above average in affordability would have bought more because it was cheaper so turn over went up due to high consumption.This approach is analogous to today’s supermarket’s sales tactics….lower the price higher the turn over.
  4. Local advertisements : Local events and festivals were sponsored by these vendors to promote their products especially food industry. The “opening of the shop” ceremony used to be completely free food event so all invited guests could come and have a feel of their food. Some of the successful businessmen who had a food chain in the town used to keep side dishes free upon buying a main dish to pull out the crowd to promote their new venture for a year or so.In other product shops upon “opening ceremony” free food event was used to be there but people would buy their other products as a curtesy on the day of opening. Current days I find many bakeries and other companies keep product promotions but not entirely free though.

There may many more points to be discussed about these business tactics.

I still wonder how businessmen were using modern era management theories in their businesses in 10-20 years back. I believe this is just a complete cycle of knowledge transfer  .The old theories get researched and polished to suite new era demands and they are generally showcased as modern theories.

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